Skratky v elektrónovej mikroskopii

Cieľom príspevku je poskytnúť abecedný zoznam skratiek, ktoré sa často alebo ojedinele vyskytujú v odborných textoch o elektrónovej mikroskopii a jej technikách. Slovné rozpísanie skratiek zostáva v angličtine, keďže nie všetko je možné vysvetliť troma – štyrmi slovami. Do zoznamu boli zahrnuté aj skratky týkajúce sa niektorých analýz a ich matematického aparátu.

A

A/D – Analog to Digital converter

ACF – Absorption Correction Factor

ACSEM – Aberration Corrected Scanning Electron Microscope

ADC – Analog to Digital Converter

ADF – Annular Dark Field detector

AE – Auger Electrons

AEE – Auger Electron Emission

AEEM – Auger Electron Emission Microscopy

AEES – Auger Electron Emission Spectroscopy

AEM – Analytical Electron Microscopy

AES – Auger Electron Spectroscopy

AFF – Aberration Free Focus

AFM – Atomic Force Microscopy

AHL – Atom Holographic Lithography

AIP – Achromatic Image Plane

ALCHEMI – Atom Location by Channeling Enhanced Microanalysis

AM-AFM – Amplitude Modulated Atomic Force Microscopy

APB – Anti Phase domain Boundary

ARPES – Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

ART – Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques

ASEM – Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy

ATEM – Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy

ATW – Atmospheric Thin Window

 

B

BEEM – Balistic Electron Emission Microscopy

BEI – Backscattered Electrons Imaging

BF – Bright Field

BFP – Back Focal Plane

BSE – Back Scattered Electrons

BSED – Back Scattered Electron Diffraction (Detector)

BZB – Brillouin Zone Boundary

C

C-AFM – Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy

CBED – Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction

CBI – Convergent Beam Illumination

CBIM – Convergent Beam Imaging

CC – Camera Constant

CCD – Charge Coupled Device

CCF – Cross Correlation Function

CCM – Charge Collection Microscopy

CCS – Concentric Cone Spectrometer

CDF – Centered Dark Field

CE – Collection Efficiency

CET – Cryoelectron Tomography

CF – Coherent Fresnel (Foucault)

CFEG – Cold Field Emission Gun

CHA – Concentric Hemispherical Analyzer

ChX-rays – Characteristic X-rays

CITS – Current Imaging Tunneling Spectroscopy

CL – Cathodoluminescence

CMA – Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer

CRT – Cathode Ray Tube

CSEM – Conventional Scanning Electron Microscopy

CTEM – Conventional Transmission Electron Microscope

CTF – Contrast Transfer Function

CX-rays – Continuous X-rays

CXDI – Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging

 

D

D/A – Digital to Analogue converter

DAC – Digital to Analogue converter

DD – Double Diffraction

DE – Diffracted Electrons

DECO – Doubly Symmetrical Electrostatic Corrector

DF – Dark Field

DI – Diffractive Imaging

DLP – Diffraction Limited Probe

DLTS – Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy

DOF – Depth Of Focus

DP – Diffraction Pattern

DPN – Dip-Pen Nanolithography

DQE – Detector Quantum Efficiency

DREEM – Double Reflection Electron Emission Microscope

DSP – Digital Signal Processor

DSTEM – Dedicated Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

DTEM – Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope

E

EB – Electron Beam

EBIC – Electron Beam Induced Current (Conductivity)

EBIV – Electron Beam Induced Voltage

EBL – Electron Beam Lithography

EBSD – Electron Back Scattered Diffraction

EBSP – Electron Back Scattering Patterns

ECP – Electron Channeling Pattern

ED – Electron Diffraction

EDP – Energy Dispersive Plane

EDS – Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

EDX – Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis

EDXS – Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

EEL – Electron Energy Loss

EELM – Electron Energy Loss Microscopy

EELS – Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

EFI – Energy Filtered Imaging

EFTEM – Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy

EH – Electron Holography

EHL – Electron Holographic Lithography

ELE – Electrons with Losses of Energy

ELNES – Energy Loss Near Edge Structures

EM – Electron Microscopy

EMFP – Elastic Mean Free Path

EP – Electron Plasmons

ESCA – Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

ESD – Environmental Scanning electron Detector

ESEM – Extended Low Vacuum Mode

ESI – Electron Spectroscopic Imaging

ET – Everhart-Thornley

ETD – Everhart-Thornley Detector

EXAFS – Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure

EXELFS – Extended Energy Loss Fine Structures

F

FBD – Focused Probe Diffraction

FC-AFM – Force Clamp Atomic Force Microscopy

FCF – Fluorescence Correction Factor

FCS – Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

FE-EPMA – Field Emission Electron Probe Microanalyzer

FEG – Field Emission Gun

FEP – Filter Entrance Plane

FESEM – Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy

FET – Field Effect Transistor

FFM – Friction Force Microscopy

FFP – Front Focal Plane

FFT – Fast Fourier Transform

FIB – Focused Ion Beam

FIM – Field Ion Microscopy

FIP – Final Image Plane

FM-AFM – Frequency Modulated Atomic Force Microscopy

FOLZ – First Order Laue Zone

FSE – Fast Secondary Electrons

FWHM – Full Width of Half Maximum

FWTM – Full Width at Tenth Maximum

FX-AFM – Force Extension Atomic Force Microscopy

FX-rays – Secondary X-ray Fluorescence

G

GB – Grain Boundary

GCS – Generalized Cross Section

GOS – Generalized Oscillator Strength

GSED – Gaseous Secondary Electron Detector

H

HAADF – High Angle Annular Dark Field detector

HFA – Hyperbolic Field Analyser

HFEG – Hot Field Emission Gun

HFE-STEM – Holography Field Emission Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

HIEM – Holographic Interfernce Electron Microscopy

HOLZ – High Order Laue Zone

HPGe – High Purity Germanium crystal

HREELS – Highly spatially Resolved Electron Energy Spectroscopy

HREM – High Resolution Electron Microscopy

HRLVFESEM – High Resolution Low Voltage Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy

HRSEM – High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy

HRTEM – High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

HV – High Vacuum

HVEM – High Voltage Electron Microscopy

I

IDB – Inversion  Domain Boundary

IETS – Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy

IG – Intrinsic Ge

IKL – Intersecting Kikuchi Line

ILDOS – Integrated Local Density Of State

IMFP – Inelastic Mean Free Path

IPES – Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy

IRF – Impulse Response Function

IVEM – Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope

 

K

KDI – Kirchhoff Diffraction Integral

KFM – Kelvin Force Microscopy

KPFM – Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

L

LACBED – Large Angle Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction

LDOS – Local Density Of States

LEDS – Low Energy Diffuse Scattering

LEED – Low Energy Electron Diffraction

LEELM – Low Electron Energy Loss Microscopy

LEEM – Low Energy Electron Microscopy

LEI - secondary Electron Imaging by Lower detector

LFM – Lateral Force Microscopy

LIMS – Laser Induced Mass Spectrometry

LP – Lattice Phonons

LPSO – Long Period Stacking Order

LSP – Localized Surface Plasmons

LT-STM – Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

LV – Low Vacuum

LV-SEM – Low Voltage Scanning Electron Microscope

LVEM – Low Voltage Electron Microscopy

M

MBI – Multibeam Imaging

MCA – Multichannel Analyzer

MCD – Magnetic Circular Dichroism

MDF – Modulation Transfer Function

MCP – Microchannel Plate

MD – Microdiffraction

MDFF – Mixed Dynamic Form Factor

MDM – Minimum Detectable Mass

MEM – Mirror Electron Microscopy

MFM – Magnetic Force Microscopy

MIEEM – Metastable Impact Electron Emission Microscopy

MLCFA – Maximum Likelihood Common Factor Analysis

MOKE – Magnetooptical Kerr Effect microscopy

MRFM – Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy

MTF – Modulation Transfer Function

MULSAM – Multispectral Analytical (Auger) Microscope

N

NA – Numerical Aperture

NC-AFM – Noncontact Atomic Force Microscope

NEXAFS – Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure

NIR – Near Infrared

NPB – Nearly Parallel Beam

 

O

OIM – Orientation Imaging Microscopy

OTEDP – Oblique Textured Electron Diffraction Pattern

OTF – Optical Transfer Function

P

P/B – Peak to Background ratio

PB – Phase Boundary

PBI – Parallel Beam Illumination

PCD – Projected Charge Density

PCTF – Phase Contrast Transfer Function

PE – Primary Electrons

PEELS – Parallel Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

PEEM – Photoemission Electron Microscopy

PFM – Piezoelectric Force Microscopy

PHA – Pulse Height Analysis

PHEEM – Photoelectron Emission Microscope

PIXE – Photon Induced X-ray Emission

PM – Photomultiplier

PMT – Photomultiplier Tube

PPH – Point Projection Holography

PSD – Positionally Senesitive Detector

PSF – Point Spread Function

 

Q

QCBED – Quantitative Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction

QHRTEM – Quantitative High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

QSEM – Quantitative Scanning Electron Microscopy

R

RCB – Rocking Beam Channeling Pattern

RDF – Radial Distribution Function

REELS – Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

REM – Reflection Electron Microscope

RFA – Retarding Field Analyser

RHEED – Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction

S

S/N – Signal to Noise ratio

SA – Surface Analysis

SAD – Selected Area Diffraction

SADP – Selected Area Diffraction Pattern

SAED – Selected Area Electron Difraction

SAM – Scannning Auger Microscopy

SAXS – Small Angle X-ray Scattering

SC – Sample Current

SCALPEL – Scattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron Lithography

SCM – Scanning Capacitance Microscopy

SDD – Silicon Drift Detector

SDLTS – Scanning Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy

SE – Secondary Electrons

SEAM – Scanning Electron Acoustic Microscopy

SEC – Schottky Emission Cathode

SEELS – Serial Electron Energy Loss Spectrometer (Spectroscopy)

SEEM – Secondary Electron Emission Microscopy

SEG – Side Entry Goniometer

SEI - Secondary Electron Imaging by upper detector

SEM – Scanning Electron Microscopy

SEMPA – Scanning Electron Microscopy with Polarisation Analysis

SEN – Secondary Electron Noise

SERS – Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering

SF – Stacking Faults

SFA – Surface Forces Apparatus

SFXM – Scanning Fluorescence X-ray Microscope

SGM – Scanning Gate Microscopy

SH-PFM – Second Harmony Piezo Force Microscopy

SHRLI – Simulated High Resolution Lattice Images

SIM – Scanning Impedance Microscopy

SIMS – Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

SLEEM – Scanning Low Energy Electron Microscopy

SLM – Spatial Light Modulator

SLS – Strained Layer Superlattices

SMART – Scanning Microscope Analysis and Resolution Testing

SNOL – Scanning Near field Optical Lithography

SNOM – Scanning Near field Optical Microscopy

SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio

SOLZ – Second Order Laue Zone

SP-STM – Spin Polarized Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

SPAN – Scanning Probe Alloying Nanolithography

SPBN – Scanning Probe Based Nanolithography

SPEM – Scanning Photoemission Microscope

SPL – Scanning Probe Lithography

SPLEEM – Spin Polarized Low Energy Electron Microscopy

SPM – Scanning Probe Microscopy

SPS – Scanning Probe Spectroscopy

SREM – Scanning Reflection Electron Microscopy

SRM – Standard Reference Material

SSPM – Scanning Surface Potential Microscopy

STED – Stimulated Emission Depletion

STEM – Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

STXM – Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope

 

T

TB – Twin Boundary

TCC – Transmission Cross Coefficient

TCNL – Thermochemical Nanolithography

TDS – Thermal Diffuse Scattring

TE – Transmitted Electrons

TEM – Transmission Electron Microscopy

TFE – Thermal Field Emitter

THEED – Transmission High Energy Electron Diffraction

TIR – Total Internal Reflection

TLEED – Transmission Low Energy Electron Diffraction

TM-AFM – Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy

TOFA – Time Of Flight Analyser

TTL – Through The Lens detector

TXM – Transmission X-ray Microscope

 

U

UED – Ultrafast Electron Diffraction

UEM – Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

UHV – Ultrahigh Vacuum

UHV-SEM – Ultrahigh Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope

UHV-STM – Ultrahigh Vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscope

UTW – Ultrathin Window

UVPEEM – Ultraviolet Light Excited Photoemission Electron Microscopy

V

V/F – Voltage to Frequency converter

VLV-SEM – Very Low Voltage Scanning Electron Microscope

VP-SEM – Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope

VPSE – Variably Pressure Secondary Electron detector

W

WAXS – Wide Angle X-ray Scattering

WB – Weak Beam

WBDF – Weak Beam Dark Field

WBEM – Weak Beam Electron Microscopy

WBI – Weak Beam Imaging

WD – Working Distance

WDX – Wavelenght Dispersive X-ray analysis

 

X

X-STM – Cross-sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

XANES – X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure

XCF – Cross Correlation Function

XEDS – X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

XMCD – X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

XMLD – X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichoism

XPEEM – X-ray Photoemission Electron Microscopy

XPS – X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

XRD – X-ray Diffraction

XRF – X-ray Fluorescence

XRMA – X-ray Microanalysis

XSI – X-ray Spectrum Images

 

Z

ZAF – Atomic number, absorption, fluorescence correction

ZAP – Zone Axis Pattern

ZL peak – Zero Loss peak

ZOLZ – Zero Order Laue Zone

 

Použitá literatúra

[1]Reimer L., Kohl H.: Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation. 5th ed., Springer, USA, 2008, ISBN 978-0-387-40093-8.

[2] Williams D. B., Carter C. B.: Transmission Electron Microscopy: Textbook for Materials Science. Plenum, USA, 1996, ISBN 0-306-45324-X.

[3]Biological Low-Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy. Edited by Schatten H. and Pawley J. B., Springer, USA, 2008, ISBN 978-0-387-72970-1.

[4]Garratt-Reed A. J., Bell D. C.: Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis in the Electron Microscope. BIOS, Great Britain, 2003, ISBN 0-203-59731-1.

[5] Donovan J. J.: Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis", 2nd Ed., Plenum, New York, 1992.

[6]Kale A.: Quantitative Microanalysis Using The Hyperbolic Field Analyser. Dissertation Thesis, The University of York, Department of Physics, September 2003.

[7] Electron Microscopy: Principles and Fundamentals. Edited by Amelinckx S. et al., VCH, Germany, 1997, ISBN 3-527-29479-1.

[8] Reed S. J. B.: Electron Microprobe Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy in Geology. 2nd. ed., Cambridge University Press, Great Britain, 2005, ISBN 978-0-511-12542-3.

[9] Science of Microscopy. Edited by Hawkes P. W., Spence J. C. H., Springer Science USA, 2007, ISBN 0-387-25296-7.

[10] Bhushan B.: Scanning Probe Microscopy in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Germany, 2010, ISBN 978-3-642-03534-0.

[11] Mitome   M.   et   al.:    High-resolution electron microscopy of fine particles. In Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 4, 1993, pp. 297 – 304.

[12] Zuo J. M., Weickenmeier A. L.: On the beam selection and convergence in the Bloch-wave method. In Ultramicroscopy 57, 1995, pp. 375 – 383.

[13] Holmestad R. et al.: Use of quantitative convergent beam electron diffraction in materials science. In Microsc. Res. and Tech. 46, 1999, pp. 130 – 145.

[14] Spence J. C. H.: Convergent-beam nano-diffraction, in-line holography and coherent shadow imaging. In Optik 92, No. 2, 1992, pp. 57 – 68.